руководитель департамента — Немировская Анна Валентиновна
This article follows the “return of emotions” within the scholarship on law and criminal justice, one of the most promising methodological and conceptual innovations to emerge during the last two decades. The article discusses the possibilities of applying an environmental approach to emotional management using trials of the abuse of parents from early modern Russia. Through a close analysis of trial narratives, I develop the notion of emotional environment to contextualize trials within a cultural and physical setting constructed by the specific way emotions are communicated in order to influence the legal outcomes of the trial. It is argued here that early modern court narratives (and their creators) used an environmental approach to emotional management. They focused on the creation of the specific cultural and physical settings to externalize their emotions for successful mediation of their conflicts. These settings emerged as a result of the interplay of individuals and their surroundings, including natural, social, built, learning and informational environments that provided a specific way in which emotions were consumed by individuals and collectives.
The contemporary sociological debate highlights that youth is a category of age, but actual chronological youth is hardly viewed as a space of age production. Transition studies exclude youth as a stage of age identity production, while age studies do not problematize young people's experience. This article focuses on age construction by two groups of chronologically young women. The analysis of forty qualitative interviews with fifteen- to twenty-year-old girls and thirty- to thirty-five-year-old women from Saint Petersburg shows that the concept of youth is slipping away from the biographical narratives of the informants from both age groups. Subjective adulthood experienced by young women is a goal and a value, while a young body does not prove to be a significant and available resource. At the same time, adulthood is not constructed as a set of clearly defined social characteristics but as an identity, a subjective experience, embodied adult personhood.
Little research has connected underage drinking with adolescent information management strategies. The present study uses longitudinal analyses to theoretically link adolescent lying with parental “monitoring knowledge,” and, in turn, with prospective adolescent drinking, in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. seventh- and eighth-graders (N = 4020). Structural equation modeling evaluated and supported, two key hypotheses: (1) dishonesty promotes future alcohol use by decreasing parental monitoring knowledge, and (2) dishonesty directly predicts alcohol consumption independent of its effects on parental monitoring. Maternal warmth and adolescent satisfaction with maternal relationships, but not parental control, were associated with lessened lying, and predicted parental monitoring and underage drinking. Our data implicate the role of adolescent agency for parental monitoring and highlight advantages of cohesive as opposed to over-restrictive parenting. © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents
Background: According to previous research, incorrect teacher expectations about students can affect students’ academic success and school performance. Moreover, students’ ethnicity was found to be one of the most influencial characteristics regarding teacher expectations as the latter can be based on ethnic stereotypes. Most studies test this relationship by comparing teacher expectations toward multiple ethnic groups. However, in current research we propose another perspective, assuming that the presence of the connection between ethnic stereotypes and expectations may be determined by the content of stereotypes.
Objective: This study examines the influence of students’ ethnicity on teacher expectations and stereotypes, as well as the relationship of teacher expectations and stereotypes in relation to ethnic minority students by including the stereotype content model in the analysis.
Design: 34 primary school teachers participated in the experiment in which they analyzed six students’ profiles, two of which were experimental. Experimental profiles contained identical information but differed in names of the students and their parents and additionally in migration background. Thus, we manipulated only information related to ethnicity and migration history of two students.
Results: Teacher expectations about the performance of the minority student were always unfavorable compared with the expectations about the performance of the majority student but expectations about the abilities of minority and majority students, which include teacher beliefs about students’ educational skills, attitudes and motivation, capacity for work in school class, were mixed. We also discovered that the teacher expectations positively related to the perceptions of competence and were not related to the perceptions of warmth. However, the minority student was evaluated by teachers as warm and competent as the majority.
Conclusion: This study shows the relevance of the problem of correct expectations of teachers in relation to students with different ethnic backgrounds.